The coastal ocean comprises the semi-enclosed seas on the continental shelf, including estuaries and extending to the shelf break. This region is the focus of many serious concerns, including coastal inundation by tides, storm surges or sea level change; fisheries and aquaculture management; water quality; harmful algal blooms; planning of facilities (such as power stations); port development and maintenance; and oil spills. This book addresses modeling and simulation of the transport, evolution and fate of particles (physical and biological) in the coastal ocean. It is the first to summarize the state of the art in this field and direct it toward diverse applications, for example in measuring and monitoring sediment motion, oil spills and larval ecology. This is an invaluable textbook and reference work for advanced students and researchers in oceanography, geophysical fluid dynamics, marine and civil engineering, computational science and environmental science.
It is one thing when religious institutions talk about God and the Supreme Being and the Hindu shastras, and it is also another thing when these institutions also throw in a lot of theology which is outright misogynous and sexist and caste-ist, and thereby exclude half the population of India. Are religious institutions participants in propounding sexist and caste-ist theology which affects how people engage in their every-day lives? Do these institutions therefore, violate the Fundamental Rights that are granted to all the citizens of India by the Constitution? If caste-ist and sex-ist discourse is allowed to function in the public realm, it tantamounts to being unconstitutional and comprises a violation of one of the Fundamental Rights that has been granted in India, namely, Article15 of the Constitution of India and is the Right to Equality. 15. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.- (1) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them. The larger question which we should all strive towards is: why should the Hindu shastras be seen as comprising, in its totality, "revealed knowledge" when large chunks of it refer to temporal behavior that is based on one's gender or caste (the most oft-cited being Manusmriti's Varnashrama). Why are they cited as being infallible when often these texts propound extremely sexist and caste-ist views? The yet unresolved conundrum, thus is: how does the Indian state (which is also a signatory to CEDAW) allow these texts to be a part of public discourse as they are often, and mostly, quite unconstitutional? The rampant sexist and caste-ist discourse that is intrinsic to our Hindu shastras is overt and unapologetic. How we, that is, women - eat, breathe, dress and conduct ourselves and the kinds of labor that we are allowed to perform - are codified and seen as intrinsic to the Hindu shastras. The realm of religion, indeed, is the privilege of men. And indeed, it would not be salacious to argue that self-identifying Brahmin men and those who function in the religious institutions and are the so-called custodians of Hindu dharma are mostly myopic; they are unable to distinguish between what constitutes "revealed knowledge" about Existence and Brahman and Creation, and temporal gender-caste based social modes of being. What prevents the government of India (which is also a signatory to CEDAW) from slapping legal cases against these religious institutions as they propound unconstitutional rhetoric that, in all respects, violates our Fundamental Rights that are embedded within the Indian Constitution? The larger question, though, is: can we ever take it for a given that what we know, in a definitive manner, as being central to the Hindu shastras can be construed as being infallible? - for all we know - these texts might have been amended and changes made as they were handed down generations. In the preface to his version of Manavadharma, Sir William Jones wrote about the textual variations that existed and how he collated different versions that were available in manuscript form to arrive at his final text. We can arrive at the obvious conclusion that William Jones consulted many textual variations of the Manusmriti, and if so, the implication is that there was no single authoritative text. If these texts that constitute our Hindu shastras are unreliable with numerous variants existing simultaneously, then it stands to reason that there is no authentic version that we can refer to as being the original. Who is to tell as to which part comprised "revealed knowledge" and which sections were subsequent add-ons?
Men and women often have different approaches to, and understandings of war and peace. Different expectations about what the society should look like after conflict ends affect the ways in which men and women approach peace-making, post-conflict transformation, and rebuilding. One important aspect of the post-conflict transformation period involves the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) processes. How DDR is handled, specifically who is involved and how inclusive it is, has implications for the society that emerges at the end of the conflict. The literature, as well as lessons of past cases, is instructive in reinforcing the importance of including women in the post-conflict transition process and for our understanding of gender relations in the conflict and post-conflict periods. However, it often does not go far enough in exploring what really happens following the formal end of conflict, and why an underlying insecurity remains. This volume focuses on a series of critical research questions regarding the period following the end of political violence with an emphasis on those questions most relevant to policymakers. By drawing on a strong theoretical framework and a number of cases, this volume provides important insight into questions pertaining to the end of conflict and the challenges inherent in the post-conflict transition period that are relevant to students and practitioners alike. Appended to the cases and conclusions, and informed by the results of the cases, there is an appendix that applies the lessons learned designed specifically for those who make policy decisions pertaining to post-war rebuilding.
The necessity of describing three-nucleon and three-quark systems have led to a constant interest in the problem of three particles. The question of including relativistic effects appeared together with the consideration of the decay amplitude in the framework of the dispersion technique. The relativistic dispersion description of amplitudes always takes into account processes connected with the investigated reaction by the unitarity condition or by virtual transitions; in the case of three-particle processes they are, as a rule, those where other many-particle states and resonances are produced. The description of these interconnected reactions and ways of handling them is the main subject of the book.
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